Difference between revisions of "DRBD on Fedora 13"

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{{howto_header}}
 
{{howto_header}}
 +
 +
'''NOTICE''': This page has been merged into the [[Two_Node_Fedora_13_Cluster_-_Xen-Based_Virtual_Machine_Host_on_DRBD%2BCLVM#Building_the_DRBD_Array|Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster - Xen-Based Virtual Machine Host on DRBD+CLVM]] HowTo.
 +
 +
----
  
 
'''Warning''': Until this warning is removed, do not use or trust this document. When complete and tested, this warning will be removed.
 
'''Warning''': Until this warning is removed, do not use or trust this document. When complete and tested, this warning will be removed.
Line 8: Line 12:
  
 
[[DRBD]] is useful in small clusters as it provides real-time mirroring of data across two (or more) nodes. In [[Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster|two-node clusters]], this can be used to host clustered [[LVM]] physical volumes. On these volumes you can create logical volumes to host [[GFS2]] partitions, virtual machines, [[iSCSI]] and so forth.
 
[[DRBD]] is useful in small clusters as it provides real-time mirroring of data across two (or more) nodes. In [[Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster|two-node clusters]], this can be used to host clustered [[LVM]] physical volumes. On these volumes you can create logical volumes to host [[GFS2]] partitions, virtual machines, [[iSCSI]] and so forth.
 +
 +
== A Map of the Cluster's Storage ==
 +
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
              Node1                                Node2
 +
          _____  _____                        _____  _____
 +
          | sda | | sdb |                      | sda | | sdb |
 +
          |_____| |_____|                      |_____| |_____|
 +
            |_______|                            |_______|
 +
    _______ ____|___ _______            _______ ____|___ _______
 +
  __|__  __|__    __|__  __|__      __|__  __|__    __|__  __|__
 +
| md0 | | md1 |  | md2 | | md3 |    | md3 | | md2 |  | md1 | | md0 |
 +
|_____| |_____|  |_____| |_____|    |_____| |_____|  |_____| |_____|
 +
    |      |        |      |          |      |        |      |
 +
___|___  _|_  ____|____  |___________|  ____|____  _|_  ___|___
 +
| /boot | | / | | <swap>  |        |        | <swap>  | | / | | /boot |
 +
|_______| |___| |_________|  ______|______  |_________| |___| |_______|
 +
                            | /dev/drbd0  |
 +
                            |_____________|
 +
                                  |
 +
                              ____|______
 +
                              | clvm PV  |
 +
                              |___________|
 +
                                  |
 +
                              _____|_____
 +
                            | drbd_vg0  |
 +
                            |___________|
 +
                                  |
 +
                              _____|_____ ___...____
 +
                            |          |          |
 +
                          ___|___    ___|___    ___|___
 +
                        | lv_X  |  | lv_Y  |  | lv_N  |
 +
                        |_______|  |_______|  |_______|
 +
</source>
  
 
= Install =
 
= Install =
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
yum install drbd.x86_64 drbd-xen.x86_64
+
yum install drbd.x86_64 drbd-xen.x86_64 drbd-utils.x86_64
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
 
= Compile the DRBD module for Xen dom0 =
 
= Compile the DRBD module for Xen dom0 =
  
If you are running the [[Xen_on_Fedora_13#dom0|custom Xen dom0]], you will need to build the DRBD module from the source RPM.
+
If you are running the [[Xen_on_Fedora_13#dom0|custom Xen dom0]], you will probably need to build the DRBD module from the source RPM. You can try the following RPMs, but be aware that if the [[dom0]] kernel gets updated, you will need to rebuild these RPMs using the following steps.
 +
 
 +
== AN! Provided DRBD RPMs ==
 +
 
 +
* [https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-2.6.32.21_167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm drbd-km-2.6.32.21_167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm] - DRBD kernel module for myoung's 2.6.32.21_167 dom0 kernel (897 KiB)
 +
* [https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-debuginfo-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm drbd-km-debuginfo-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm] - Debug info for DRBD kernel module for myoung's 2.6.32.21_167 dom0 kernel (3.2 KiB)
 +
 
 +
You can install the two above RPMs with this command:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
rpm -ivh https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-2.6.32.21_167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-debuginfo-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
== Building RPMs From Source ==
 +
 
 +
If the above RPMs don't work or if the dom0 kernel you are using in any way differs, please continue.
  
 
Install the build environment:
 
Install the build environment:
Line 31: Line 84:
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
rpm -ivh --force http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-headers-2.6.32.17-157.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-devel-2.6.32.17-157.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm
+
rpm -ivh --force http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-headers-2.6.32.21-167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-devel-2.6.32.21-167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Line 53: Line 106:
 
= Configure =
 
= Configure =
  
We need to see how much space you have left on you [[LVM]] [[PV]]. The <span class="code">pvscan</span> tool will show you this.
+
Now that DRBD is installed, it is time to prepare the space and configure DRBD.
 +
 
 +
== Allocating Raw Space ==
 +
 
 +
If you followed the setup steps provided for in "[[Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster]]", you will have a set amount of unconfigured hard drive space. This is what we will use for the DRBD space on either node. If you've got a different setup, you will need to allocate some raw space and then
 +
 
 +
=== Creating a RAID level 1 'md' Device ===
 +
 
 +
This assumes that you have two raw drives, <span class="code">/dev/sda</span> and <span class="code">/dev/sdb</span>. It further assumes that you've created three partitions which have been assigned to three existing <span class="code">/dev/mdX</span> devices. With these assumptions, we will create <span class="code">/dev/sda4</span> and <span class="code">/dev/sdb4</span> and, using them, create a new <span class="code">/dev/md3</span> device that will host the DRBD partition.
 +
 
 +
If you do not have two drives, you can stop after creating a new partition. If you have multiple drives and plan to use a different [[TLUG_Talk:_Storage_Technologies_and_Theory#RAID_Levels|RAID levels]], please adjust the follow commands accordingly.
 +
 
 +
==== Creating The New Partitions ====
 +
 
 +
'''Warning''': The next steps will have you directly accessing your server's hard drive configuration. Please do not proceed on a live server until you've had a chance to work through these steps on a test server. One mistake can blow away '''''all your data'''''.
 +
 
 +
Start the <span class="code">fdisk</span> shell
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
pvscan
+
fdisk /dev/sda
 
</source>
 
</source>
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
  PV /dev/sda2  VG vg_01  lvm2 [465.50 GiB / 424.44 GiB free]
+
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
  Total: 1 [465.50 GiB] / in use: 1 [465.50 GiB] / in no VG: 0 [0  ]
+
        switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
 +
        sectors (command 'u').
 +
 
 +
Command (m for help):  
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
On my nodes, each of which has a single 500GB drive, I've allocated only 20GB to dom0 so I've got over 440GB left free. I like to leave a bit of space unallocated because I never know where I might need it, so I will allocate 400GB even to DRBD and keep the remaining 44GB set aside for future growth. The space you have left and how you want to allocate is an exercise you must settle based on your own needs.
+
View the current configuration with the <span class="code">p</span>rint option
  
Next, check that the name you will give to the new LV isn't used yet. The <span class="code">lvscan</span> tool will show you what names have been used.
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
p
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
 +
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders
 +
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk identifier: 0x000c6fe1
 +
 
 +
  Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System
 +
/dev/sda1              1        5100    40960000  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
/dev/sda2            5100        5622    4194304  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
/dev/sda3  *        5622        5654      256000  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
 
 +
Command (m for help):
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
Now we know for sure that the next free partition number is <span class="code">4</span>. We will now create the <span class="code">n</span>ew partition.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
lvscan
+
n
 
</source>
 
</source>
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
   ACTIVE            '/dev/vg_01/lv_root' [39.06 GiB] inherit
+
Command action
   ACTIVE            '/dev/vg_01/lv_swap' [2.00 GiB] inherit
+
  e   extended
 +
  p   primary partition (1-4)
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
We see from the above output that <span class="code">lv_root</span> and <span class="code">lv_swap</span> are used, so we will use <span class="code">lv_drbd</span> for the DRBD partition. Of course, you can use pretty much any name you want.
+
We will make it a <span class="code">p</span>rimary partition
  
Now that we know that we want to create a 400GB logical volume called <span class="code">lv_drbd</span>, we can proceed.
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
p
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Selected partition 4
 +
First cylinder (5654-60801, default 5654):
 +
</source>
  
Now to create the logical volume for the DRBD device on each node. The next two commands show what I need to call on my nodes. If you've used different names of have a different amount of free space, be sure to edit the following arguments to match your nodes.
+
Then we simply hit <span class="code"><enter></span> to select the default starting block.
  
On <span class="code">an-node01</span>:
 
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
lvcreate -L 400G -n lv_drbd /dev/vg_01
+
<enter>
 
</source>
 
</source>
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
  Logical volume "lv_drbd" created
+
Using default value 5654
 +
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (5654-60801, default 60801):
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
If I re-run <span class="code">lvscan</span> now, I will see the new volume:
+
Once again we will press <span class="code"><enter></span> to select the default ending block.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
lvscan
+
<enter>
 
</source>
 
</source>
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
  ACTIVE            '/dev/vg_01/lv_root' [39.06 GiB] inherit
+
Using default value 60801
  ACTIVE            '/dev/vg_01/lv_swap' [2.00 GiB] inherit
+
 
  ACTIVE            '/dev/vg_01/lv_drbd' [400.00 GiB] inherit
+
Command (m for help):
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
We can now proceed with the DRBD setup!
+
Now we need to change the <span class="code">t</span>ype of partition that it is.
  
== Configuration Files ==
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
t
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Partition number (1-4):
 +
</source>
  
DRBD uses a global configuration file, <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf</span>, and one or more resource files. The resource files need to be created in the <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/</span> directory and must have the suffix <span class="code">.res</span>. For this example, we will create a single resource called <span class="code">r0</span> which we will configure in <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/r0.res</span>.
+
We know that we are modifying partition number <span class="code">4</span>.
  
* [[2-Node Fedora 13 /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf|/etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf]]
+
<source lang="bash">
* [[2-Node Fedora 13 /etc/drbd.d/r0.res|/etc/drbd.d/r0.res]]
+
4
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Hex code (type L to list codes):
 +
</source>
  
Full details on all the <span class="code">drbd.conf</span> configuration file directives and arguments can be found [http://www.drbd.org/users-guide/re-drbdconf.html here]. '''Note''': That link doesn't show this new configuration format. Please see [http://www.novell.com/documentation/sle_ha/book_sleha/?page=/documentation/sle_ha/book_sleha/data/sec_ha_drbd_configure.html Novell's] link.
+
Now we need to set the [[hex]] code for the [[Filesystem_List#List_of_Linux_Partition_Types|partition type]] to set. We want to set <span class="code">fd</span>, which defines <span class="code">Linux raid autodetect</span>.
  
These are example files from a working server.
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
fd
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Changed system type of partition 4 to fd (Linux raid autodetect)
 +
</source>
  
=== /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf ===
+
Now check that everything went as expected by once again <span class="code">p</span>rinting the partition table.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
vim /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf
+
p
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
 +
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders
 +
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
Disk identifier: 0x000c6fe1
 +
 +
  Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System
 +
/dev/sda1              1        5100    40960000  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
/dev/sda2            5100        5622    4194304  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
/dev/sda3  *        5622        5654      256000  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
/dev/sda4            5654      60801  442972704+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 +
 +
Command (m for help):
 +
</source>
 +
 +
There it is. So finally, we need to <span class="code">w</span>rite the changes to the disk.
 +
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
global {
+
w
        usage-count yes;
+
</source>
        # minor-count dialog-refresh disable-ip-verification
+
<source lang="text">
}
+
The partition table has been altered!
  
common {
+
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
        protocol C;
+
  
        handlers {
+
WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
                pri-on-incon-degr "/usr/lib/drbd/notify-pri-on-incon-degr.sh; /usr/lib/drbd/notify-emergency-reboot.sh; echo b > /proc/sysrq-trigger ; reboot -f";
+
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
                pri-lost-after-sb "/usr/lib/drbd/notify-pri-lost-after-sb.sh; /usr/lib/drbd/notify-emergency-reboot.sh; echo b > /proc/sysrq-trigger ; reboot -f";
+
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
                local-io-error "/usr/lib/drbd/notify-io-error.sh; /usr/lib/drbd/notify-emergency-shutdown.sh; echo o > /proc/sysrq-trigger ; halt -f";
+
Syncing disks.
                # fence-peer "/usr/lib/drbd/crm-fence-peer.sh";
+
</source>
                # split-brain "/usr/lib/drbd/notify-split-brain.sh root";
+
                # out-of-sync "/usr/lib/drbd/notify-out-of-sync.sh root";
+
                # before-resync-target "/usr/lib/drbd/snapshot-resync-target-lvm.sh -p 15 -- -c 16k";
+
                # after-resync-target /usr/lib/drbd/unsnapshot-resync-target-lvm.sh;
+
        }
+
  
        startup {
+
If you see the above message, do '''not''' reboot until both drives have been setup. You might as well reboot once only.
                # wfc-timeout degr-wfc-timeout outdated-wfc-timeout wait-after-sb;
+
        }
+
  
        disk {
+
Repeat these steps for the second drive, <span class="code">/dev/sdb</span> and then reboot if needed.
                # on-io-error fencing use-bmbv no-disk-barrier no-disk-flushes
+
                # no-disk-drain no-md-flushes max-bio-bvecs
+
        }
+
  
        net {
+
==== Creating The New /dev/mdX Device ====
                # snd‐buf-size rcvbuf-size timeout connect-int ping-int ping-timeout max-buffers
+
                # max-epoch-size ko-count allow-two-primaries cram-hmac-alg shared-secret
+
                # after-sb-0pri after-sb-1pri after-sb-2pri data-integrity-alg no-tcp-cork
+
        }
+
  
        syncer {
+
''If you only have one drive, skip this step.''
                # rate after al-extents use-rle cpu-mask verify-alg csums-alg
+
 
                rate 100M;
+
Now we need to use <span class="code">mdadm</span> to create the new [[TLUG_Talk:_Storage_Technologies_and_Theory#Level_1|RAID level 1]] device. This will be used as the device that DRBD will directly access.
        }
+
 
}
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
mdadm --create /dev/md3 --homehost=localhost.localdomain --raid-devices=2 --level=1 /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb4
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and
 +
    may not be suitable as a boot device.  If you plan to
 +
    store '/boot' on this device please ensure that
 +
    your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use
 +
    --metadata=0.90
 +
</source>
 +
 +
Seeing as <span class="code">/boot</span> doesn't exist on this device, we can safely ignore this warning.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
y
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
 +
mdadm: array /dev/md/md4 started.
 +
</source>
 +
 +
You can now <span class="code">cat /proc/mdstat</span> to verify that it indeed built. If you're interested, you could open a new terminal window and use <span class="code">watch cat /proc/mdstat</span> and watch the array build.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
cat /proc/mdstat
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
md3 : active raid1 sdb4[1] sda4[0]
 +
      442971544 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]
 +
      [>....................]  resync =  0.8% (3678976/442971544) finish=111.0min speed=65920K/sec
 +
     
 +
md2 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
 +
      4193272 blocks super 1.1 [2/2] [UU]
 +
     
 +
md1 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1]
 +
      40958908 blocks super 1.1 [2/2] [UU]
 +
      bitmap: 1/1 pages [4KB], 65536KB chunk
 +
 +
md0 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1]
 +
      255988 blocks super 1.0 [2/2] [UU]
 +
     
 +
unused devices: <none>
 +
</source>
 +
 +
Finally, we need to make sure that the new array will start when the system boots. To do this, we'll again use <span class="code">mdadm</span>, but with different options that will have it output data in a format suitable for the <span class="code">/etc/mdadm.conf</span> file. We'll redirect this output to that config file, thus updating it.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
mdadm --detail --scan | grep md3 >> /etc/mdadm.conf
 +
cat /etc/mdadm.conf
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
# mdadm.conf written out by anaconda
 +
MAILADDR root
 +
AUTO +imsm +1.x -all
 +
ARRAY /dev/md0 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=b58df6d0:d925e7bb:c156168d:47c01718
 +
ARRAY /dev/md1 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=ac2cf39c:77cd0314:fedb8407:9b945bb5
 +
ARRAY /dev/md2 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=4e513936:4a966f4e:0dd8402e:6403d10d
 +
ARRAY /dev/md3 metadata=1.2 name=localhost.localdomain:3 UUID=f0b6d0c1:490d47e7:91c7e63a:f8dacc21
 +
</source>
 +
 +
You'll note that the last line, which we just added, is different from the previous lines. This isn't a concern, but you are welcome to re-write it to match the existing format if you wish.
 +
 +
Before you proceed, it is strongly advised that you reboot each node and then verify that the new array did in fact start with the system. You ''do not'' need to wait for the sync to finish before rebooting. It will pick up where you left off once rebooted.
 +
 +
== Configuration Files ==
 +
 +
DRBD uses a global configuration file, <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf</span>, and one or more resource files. The resource files need to be created in the <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/</span> directory and must have the suffix <span class="code">.res</span>. For this example, we will create a single resource called <span class="code">r0</span> which we will configure in <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/r0.res</span>.
 +
 +
=== /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf ===
 +
 +
The stock <span class="code">/etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf</span> is sane, so we won't bother altering it here.
 +
 +
Full details on all the <span class="code">drbd.conf</span> configuration file directives and arguments can be found [http://www.drbd.org/users-guide/re-drbdconf.html here]. '''Note''': That link doesn't show this new configuration format. Please see [http://www.novell.com/documentation/sle_ha/book_sleha/?page=/documentation/sle_ha/book_sleha/data/sec_ha_drbd_configure.html Novell's] link.
  
 
=== /etc/drbd.d/r0.res ===
 
=== /etc/drbd.d/r0.res ===
  
This is the important part. This defines the resource to use, and must reflect the IP addresses and  
+
This is the important part. This defines the resource to use, and must reflect the IP addresses and storage devices that DRBD will use for this resource.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
Line 168: Line 355:
 
</source>
 
</source>
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
# This is for the initial LV
+
# This is the name of the resource and it's settings. Generally, 'r0' is used
 
+
# as the name of the first resource. This is by convention only, though.
resource r0 {
+
resource r0
 +
{
 +
        # This tells DRBD where to make the new resource available at on each
 +
        # node. This is, again, by convention only.
 
         device    /dev/drbd0;
 
         device    /dev/drbd0;
  
         net {
+
        # The main argument here tells DRBD that we will have proper locking
 +
        # and fencing, and as such, to allow both nodes to set the resource to
 +
        # 'primary' simultaneously.
 +
         net
 +
        {
 
                 allow-two-primaries;
 
                 allow-two-primaries;
 
         }
 
         }
  
         startup {
+
        # This tells DRBD to automatically set both nodes to 'primary' when the
 +
        # nodes start.
 +
         startup
 +
        {
 
                 become-primary-on both;
 
                 become-primary-on both;
 
         }
 
         }
  
 +
        # This tells DRBD to look for and store it's meta-data on the resource
 +
        # itself.
 
         meta-disk      internal;
 
         meta-disk      internal;
  
         # The name below must match the output from `uname -n` on the node.
+
         # The name below must match the output from `uname -n` on each node.
         on xenmaster001.iplink.net {
+
         on an-node01.alteeve.com
                 # This must be the IP address of the interface on the storage network.
+
        {
                 address        10.249.0.1:7789;
+
                 # This must be the IP address of the interface on the storage  
                 # This is the underlying partition to use for this resource on this node.
+
                # network (an-node01.sn, in this case).
                 disk            /dev/vg_01/lv_drbd;
+
                 address        10.0.0.71:7789;
 +
 
 +
                 # This is the underlying partition to use for this resource on  
 +
                # this node.
 +
                 disk            /dev/md3;
 
         }
 
         }
  
 
         # Repeat as above, but for the other node.
 
         # Repeat as above, but for the other node.
         on xenmaster002.iplink.net {
+
         on an-node02.alteeve.com
                 address        10.249.0.2:7789;
+
        {
                 disk            /dev/vg_01/lv_drbd;
+
                 address        10.0.0.72:7789;
 +
                 disk            /dev/md3;
 
         }
 
         }
 
}
 
}
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
These files must be copied to '''BOTH''' nodes and must match before you proceed.
+
This file must be copied to '''BOTH''' nodes and must match before you proceed.
  
 
== Starting The DRBD Resource ==
 
== Starting The DRBD Resource ==
  
 
From the rest of this section, pay attention to whether you see
 
From the rest of this section, pay attention to whether you see
* '''Primary'''
+
* '''Node1'''
* '''Secondary'''
+
* '''Node2'''
 
* '''Both'''
 
* '''Both'''
  
These indicate which node to run the following commands on. There is no functional difference between either node, so just randomly choose one to be '''Primary''' and the other will be '''Secondary'''. Once you've chosen which is which, be consistent with which node you run the commands on. Of course, if a command block is proceeded by '''Both''', run the following code block on both nodes.
+
These indicate which node to run the following commands on. There is no functional difference between either node, so just randomly choose one to be '''Node1''' and the other will be '''Node2'''. Once you've chosen which is which, be consistent with which node you run the commands on. Of course, if a command block is proceeded by '''Both''', run the following code block on both nodes.
 +
 
 +
=== Initialize The Block Device ===
 +
 
 +
'''Node1'''
 +
 
 +
This step creates the DRBD meta-data on the new DRBD device. It is only needed when creating new DRBD partitions.
 +
 
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
drbdadm create-md r0
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
Writing meta data...
 +
initializing activity log
 +
NOT initialized bitmap
 +
New drbd meta data block successfully created.
 +
success
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
=== Monitoring Progress ===
  
 
'''Both'''
 
'''Both'''
  
 +
I find it very useful to monitor DRBD while running the rest of the setup. To do this, open a second terminal on each node and use <span class="code">watch</span> to keep an eye on <span class="code">/proc/drbd</span>. This way you will be able to monitor the progress of the array in near-real time.
 +
 +
'''Both'''
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
/etc/init.d/drbd start
+
watch cat /proc/drbd
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
 +
At this stage, it should look like this:
 +
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
 +
version: 8.3.7 (api:88/proto:86-91)
 +
GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 +
0: cs:Unconfigured
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
'''''FILL THIS IN'''''.
+
=== Starting the Resource ===
  
= Setting up CLVM =
+
'''Both'''
  
The goal of DRBD in the cluster is to provide clustered [[LVM]] to the nodes. This is done by turning the DRBD partition into an LVM physical volume.
+
This will attach the backing device, <span class="code">/dev/md3</span> in our case, and then start the new resource <span class="code">r0</span>.
  
So now we will "stack" LVM by creating a [[PV]] on top of the new [[DRBD]] partition, <span class="code">/dev/drbd0</span>, that we created in the previous step. Since this new LVM [[PV]] will exist on top of the shared DRBD partition, whatever get written to it's logical volumes will be immediately available on either node, regardless of which node actually initiated the write.
+
<source lang="bash">
 +
drbdadm up r0
 +
</source>
  
This capability is the underlying reason for creating this cluster; Neither machine is truly needed so if one machine dies, anything on top of the DRBD partition will still be available. When the failed machine returns, the surviving node will have a list of what blocks changed while the other node was gone and can use this list to quickly re-sync the other server.
+
There will be no output at the command line. If you are <span class="code">watch</span>ing <span class="code">/proc/drbd</span> though, you should now see something like this:
  
== Making LVM Cluster-Aware ==
+
<source lang="text">
 +
version: 8.3.7 (api:88/proto:86-91)
 +
GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 +
0: cs:Connected ro:Secondary/Secondary ds:Inconsistent/Inconsistent C r----
 +
    ns:0 nr:0 dw:0 dr:0 al:0 bm:0 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:442957988
 +
</source>
  
Normally, LVM is run on a single server. This means that at any time, the LVM can write data to the underlying drive and not need to worry if any other device might change anything. In clusters, this isn't the case. The other node could try to write to the shared storage, so then nodes need to enable "locking" to prevent the two nodes from trying to work on the same bit of data at the same time.  
+
That it is <span class="code">Secondary/Secondary</span> and <span class="code">Inconsistent/Inconsistent</span> is expected.
  
The process of enabling this locking is known as making LVM "cluster-aware".
+
=== Setting the First Primary Node ===
  
=== Enabling Cluster Locking ===
+
'''Node1'''
  
LVM has a built-in tool called <span class="code">lvmconf</span> that can be used to enable LVM locking. This is provided as part of the <span class="code">lvm2-cluster</span> package. Install it and then run:
+
As this is a totally new resource, DRBD doesn't know which side of the array is "more valid" than the other. In reality, neither is as there was no existing data of note on either node. This means that we now need to choose a node and tell DRBD to treat it as the "source" node. This step will also tell DRBD to make the "source" node <span class="code">primary</span>. Once set, DRBD will begin <span class="code">sync</span>'ing in the background.  
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
yum install lvm2-cluster.x86_64
+
drbdadm -- --overwrite-data-of-peer primary r0
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Before you continue, we want to tell <span class="code">clvmd</span> that it should start '''after''' the <span class="code">drbd</span> daemon. To do this, edit it's <span class="code">/etc/init.d/clvmd</span> init script and add <span class="code">drbd</span> to it's start block.
+
As before, there will be no output at the command line, but <span class="code">/proc/drbd</span> will change to show the following:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 +
0: cs:SyncSource ro:Primary/Secondary ds:UpToDate/Inconsistent C r----
 +
    ns:69024 nr:0 dw:0 dr:69232 al:0 bm:4 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:442888964
 +
        [>....................] sync'ed:  0.1% (432508/432576)M
 +
        finish: 307:33:42 speed: 320 (320) K/sec
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
If you're watching the secondary node, the <span class="code">/proc/drbd</span> will show <span class="code">ro:Secondary/Primary ds:Inconsistent/UpToDate</span>. This is, as you can guess, simply a reflection of it being the "over-written" node.
 +
 
 +
=== Setting the Second Node to Primary ===
 +
 
 +
'''Node2'''
 +
 
 +
The last step to complete the array is to tell the second node to also become <span class="code">primary</span>.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
vim /etc/init.d/clvmd
+
drbdadm primary r0
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Change the header by adding <span class="code">drbd</span> to <span class="code">Required-Start</span> and <span class="code">Required-Stop</span>:
+
As with many <span class="code">drbdadm</span> commands, nothing will be printed to the console. If you're watching the <span class="code">/proc/drbd</span> though, you should see something like <span class="code">Primary/Primary ds:UpToDate/Inconsistent</span>. The <span class="code">Inconsistent</span> flag will remain until the sync is complete.
 +
 
 +
=== A Note On sync Speed ===
 +
 
 +
You will notice in the previous step that the <span class="code">sync</span> speed seems awfully slow at <span class="code">320 (320) K/sec</span>.
 +
 
 +
''This is not a problem!''
 +
 
 +
As actual data is written to either side of the array, that data will be immediately copied to both nodes. As such, both nodes will always contain up to date copies of the real data. Given this, the <span class="code">syncer</span> is intentionally set low so as to not put too much load on the underlying disks that could cause slow downs. If you still wish to increase the sync speed, you can do so with the following command.
 +
 
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
drbdsetup /dev/drbd0 syncer -r 100M
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
The speed-up will not be instant. It will take a little while for the speed to pick up. Once the sync is finished, it is a good idea to revert to the default sync rate.
  
 
<source lang="text">
 
<source lang="text">
### BEGIN INIT INFO
+
drbdadm syncer r0
# Provides: clvmd
+
# Required-Start: $local_fs drbd
+
# Required-Stop: $local_fs drbd
+
# Default-Start:
+
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
+
# Short-Description: Clustered LVM Daemon
+
### END INIT INFO
+
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Change the start order by removing and re-adding all cluster-related daemons:
+
=== Making DRBD Start At Boot ===
  
'''Note'''': This has extra entries to make sure all relevant entries are sorted when re-added. If you do not have some of the daemons listed below installed yet, simply skip them.
+
This is simply a matter of using <span class="code">chkconfig</span>.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
chkconfig xend off; chkconfig cman off; chkconfig drbd off; chkconfig clvmd off; chkconfig xendomains off
+
chkconfig drbd on
chkconfig xend on; chkconfig cman on; chkconfig drbd on; chkconfig clvmd on; chkconfig xendomains on
+
ls -lah /etc/rc3.d/ | grep drbd
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Now to enable cluster awareness in LVM, simply run:
+
This should output something like:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root  14 Sep  8 17:53 S70drbd -> ../init.d/drbd
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
= Setting up CLVM =
 +
 
 +
The goal of DRBD in the cluster is to provide clustered [[LVM]], referred to as [[CLVM]] to the nodes. This is done by turning the DRBD partition into an CLVM physical volume.
 +
 
 +
So now we will create a [[PV]] on top of the new [[DRBD]] partition, <span class="code">/dev/drbd0</span>, that we created in the previous step. Since this new LVM [[PV]] will exist on top of the shared DRBD partition, whatever get written to it's logical volumes will be immediately available on either node, regardless of which node actually initiated the write.
 +
 
 +
This capability is the underlying reason for creating this cluster; Neither machine is truly needed so if one machine dies, anything on top of the DRBD partition will still be available. When the failed machine returns, the surviving node will have a list of what blocks changed while the other node was gone and can use this list to quickly re-sync the other server.
 +
 
 +
== Making LVM Cluster-Aware ==
 +
 
 +
Normally, LVM is run on a single server. This means that at any time, the LVM can write data to the underlying drive and not need to worry if any other device might change anything. In clusters, this isn't the case. The other node could try to write to the shared storage, so then nodes need to enable "locking" to prevent the two nodes from trying to work on the same bit of data at the same time.
 +
 
 +
The process of enabling this locking is known as making LVM "cluster-aware".
 +
 
 +
LVM has tool called <span class="code">lvmconf</span> that can be used to enable LVM locking. This is provided as part of the <span class="code">lvm2-cluster</span> package.
 +
 
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
yum install lvm2-cluster.x86_64
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
Now to enable cluster awareness in LVM, run to following command.
  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
Line 276: Line 564:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
There won't be any output from that command.
+
=== Enabling Cluster Locking ===
  
 
By default, <span class="code">clvmd</span>, the cluster lvm daemon, is stopped and not set to run on boot. Now that we've enabled LVM locking, we need to start it:
 
By default, <span class="code">clvmd</span>, the cluster lvm daemon, is stopped and not set to run on boot. Now that we've enabled LVM locking, we need to start it:
Line 652: Line 940:
  
 
You can check that the new space is available on both nodes now using a simple call like <span class="code">df -h</span>.
 
You can check that the new space is available on both nodes now using a simple call like <span class="code">df -h</span>.
 +
 +
= Altering Start/Stop Orders =
 +
 +
Given DRBD's role in the cluster, we need to make sure that <span class="code">cman</span> starts, then <span class="code">drbd</span> and finally <span class="code">clvmd</span>. The shut down order needs to be in reverse.
 +
 +
This is because <span class="code">cman</span> provides [[DLM]] and [[fencing]]. The <span class="code">drbd</span> daemon relies on this fencing and <span class="code">clvmd</span> requires the distributed locking. Further, <span class="code">drbd</span> needs to start before <span class="code">clvmd</span> so that when <span class="code">clvmd</span> goes looking for it's [[PV]], it can find it.
 +
 +
To make sure the start order is sane then, we'll edit each of the three daemon's <span class="code">init</span> scripts and alter their <span class="code">Required-Start</span> and <span class="code">Required-Stop</span> lines, then make the changes take effect by using <span class="code">chkconfig</span> to remove and re-add them to the start levels.
 +
 +
== Altering cman ==
 +
 +
We will tell <span class="code">cman</span> to stop after <span class="code">drbd</span> only.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
vim /etc/init.d/cman
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
#
 +
# cman - Cluster Manager init script
 +
#
 +
# chkconfig: - 21 79
 +
# description: Starts and stops cman
 +
#
 +
#
 +
### BEGIN INIT INFO
 +
# Provides:            cman
 +
# Required-Start:      $network $time
 +
# Required-Stop:        $network $time drbd
 +
# Default-Start:
 +
# Default-Stop:
 +
# Short-Description:    Starts and stops cman
 +
# Description:          Starts and stops the Cluster Manager set of daemons
 +
### END INIT INFO
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Altering drbd ==
 +
 +
Now we will tell <span class="code">drbd</span> to start after <span class="code">cman</span> and to not stop until <span class="code">clvmd</span> has stopped.
 +
 +
This requires the additional step of altering the <span class="code">chkconfig: - 70 08</span> line to instead read <span class="code">chkconfig: - 20 08</span>. This isn't strictly needed, but will give more room for <span class="code">chkconfig</span> to order the dependent daemons by allowing DRBD to be started as low as position <span class="code">20</span>, rather than waiting until position <span class="code">70</span>. This is somewhat more compatible with <span class="code">cman</span> and <span class="code">clvmd</span> which normally start at positions <span class="code">21</span> and <span class="code">24</span>, respectively
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
vim /etc/init.d/drbd
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
#
 +
# chkconfig: - 20 08
 +
# description: Loads and unloads the drbd module
 +
#
 +
# Copright 2001-2008 LINBIT Information Technologies
 +
# Philipp Reisner, Lars Ellenberg
 +
#
 +
### BEGIN INIT INFO
 +
# Provides: drbd
 +
# Required-Start: $local_fs $network $syslog cman
 +
# Required-Stop:  $local_fs $network $syslog clvmd
 +
# Should-Start:  sshd multipathd
 +
# Should-Stop:    sshd multipathd
 +
# Default-Start:
 +
# Default-Stop:
 +
# Short-Description:    Control drbd resources.
 +
### END INIT INFO
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Altering clvmd ==
 +
 +
Lastly, we will now tell <span class="code">clvmd</span> to start after <span class="code">drbd</span>.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
vim /etc/init.d/clvmd
 +
</source>
 +
<source lang="text">
 +
### BEGIN INIT INFO
 +
# Provides: clvmd
 +
# Required-Start: $local_fs drbd
 +
# Required-Stop: $local_fs
 +
# Default-Start:
 +
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
 +
# Short-Description: Clustered LVM Daemon
 +
### END INIT INFO
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Applying The Changes ==
 +
 +
Change the start order by removing and re-adding all cluster-related daemons using <span class="code">chkconfig</span>.
 +
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
chkconfig drbd off; chkconfig cman off; chkconfig clvmd off; chkconfig drbd on; chkconfig cman on; chkconfig clvmd on
 +
</source>
 +
  
  
 
{{footer}}
 
{{footer}}

Latest revision as of 17:12, 9 September 2010

 AN!Wiki :: How To :: DRBD on Fedora 13

NOTICE: This page has been merged into the Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster - Xen-Based Virtual Machine Host on DRBD+CLVM HowTo.


Warning: Until this warning is removed, do not use or trust this document. When complete and tested, this warning will be removed.

This article covers installing and configuring DRBD on a two-node Fedora 13 cluster.

Contents

[edit] Why DRBD?

DRBD is useful in small clusters as it provides real-time mirroring of data across two (or more) nodes. In two-node clusters, this can be used to host clustered LVM physical volumes. On these volumes you can create logical volumes to host GFS2 partitions, virtual machines, iSCSI and so forth.

[edit] A Map of the Cluster's Storage

               Node1                                Node2
           _____   _____                        _____   _____
          | sda | | sdb |                      | sda | | sdb |
          |_____| |_____|                      |_____| |_____|
             |_______|                            |_______|
     _______ ____|___ _______             _______ ____|___ _______
  __|__   __|__    __|__   __|__       __|__   __|__    __|__   __|__
 | md0 | | md1 |  | md2 | | md3 |     | md3 | | md2 |  | md1 | | md0 |
 |_____| |_____|  |_____| |_____|     |_____| |_____|  |_____| |_____|
    |       |        |       |           |       |        |       |
 ___|___   _|_   ____|____   |___________|   ____|____   _|_   ___|___
| /boot | | / | | <swap>  |        |        | <swap>  | | / | | /boot |
|_______| |___| |_________|  ______|______  |_________| |___| |_______|
                            | /dev/drbd0  |
                            |_____________|
                                   |
                               ____|______
                              | clvm PV   |
                              |___________|
                                   |
                              _____|_____
                             | drbd_vg0  |
                             |___________|
                                   |
                              _____|_____ ___...____
                             |           |          |
                          ___|___     ___|___    ___|___
                         | lv_X  |   | lv_Y  |  | lv_N  |
                         |_______|   |_______|  |_______|

[edit] Install

yum install drbd.x86_64 drbd-xen.x86_64 drbd-utils.x86_64

[edit] Compile the DRBD module for Xen dom0

If you are running the custom Xen dom0, you will probably need to build the DRBD module from the source RPM. You can try the following RPMs, but be aware that if the dom0 kernel gets updated, you will need to rebuild these RPMs using the following steps.

[edit] AN! Provided DRBD RPMs

You can install the two above RPMs with this command:

rpm -ivh https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-2.6.32.21_167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm https://alteeve.com/files/an-cluster/drbd-km-debuginfo-8.3.7-12.fc13.x86_64.rpm

[edit] Building RPMs From Source

If the above RPMs don't work or if the dom0 kernel you are using in any way differs, please continue.

Install the build environment:

yum -y groupinstall "Development Libraries"
yum -y groupinstall "Development Tools"

Install the kernel headers and development library for the dom0 kernel:

Note: The following commands use --force to get past the fact that the headers for the 2.6.33 are already installed, thus making RPM think that these are too old and will conflict. Please proceed with caution.

rpm -ivh --force http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-headers-2.6.32.21-167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm http://fedorapeople.org/~myoung/dom0/x86_64/kernel-devel-2.6.32.21-167.xendom0.fc12.x86_64.rpm

Download, prepare, build and install the source RPM:

rpm -ivh http://fedora.mirror.iweb.ca/releases/13/Everything/source/SRPMS/drbd-8.3.7-2.fc13.src.rpm
cd /root/rpmbuild/SPECS/
rpmbuild -bp drbd.spec 
cd /root/rpmbuild/BUILD/drbd-8.3.7/
./configure --enable-spec --with-km
cp /root/rpmbuild/BUILD/drbd-8.3.7/drbd-km.spec /root/rpmbuild/SPECS/
cd /root/rpmbuild/SPECS/
rpmbuild -ba drbd-km.spec
cd /root/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64
rpm -Uvh drbd-km-*

You should be good to go now!

[edit] Configure

Now that DRBD is installed, it is time to prepare the space and configure DRBD.

[edit] Allocating Raw Space

If you followed the setup steps provided for in "Two Node Fedora 13 Cluster", you will have a set amount of unconfigured hard drive space. This is what we will use for the DRBD space on either node. If you've got a different setup, you will need to allocate some raw space and then

[edit] Creating a RAID level 1 'md' Device

This assumes that you have two raw drives, /dev/sda and /dev/sdb. It further assumes that you've created three partitions which have been assigned to three existing /dev/mdX devices. With these assumptions, we will create /dev/sda4 and /dev/sdb4 and, using them, create a new /dev/md3 device that will host the DRBD partition.

If you do not have two drives, you can stop after creating a new partition. If you have multiple drives and plan to use a different RAID levels, please adjust the follow commands accordingly.

[edit] Creating The New Partitions

Warning: The next steps will have you directly accessing your server's hard drive configuration. Please do not proceed on a live server until you've had a chance to work through these steps on a test server. One mistake can blow away all your data.

Start the fdisk shell

fdisk /dev/sda
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').
 
Command (m for help):

View the current configuration with the print option

p
Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000c6fe1
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1        5100    40960000   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda2            5100        5622     4194304   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda3   *        5622        5654      256000   fd  Linux raid autodetect
 
Command (m for help):

Now we know for sure that the next free partition number is 4. We will now create the new partition.

n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)

We will make it a primary partition

p
Selected partition 4
First cylinder (5654-60801, default 5654):

Then we simply hit <enter> to select the default starting block.

<enter>
Using default value 5654
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (5654-60801, default 60801):

Once again we will press <enter> to select the default ending block.

<enter>
Using default value 60801
 
Command (m for help):

Now we need to change the type of partition that it is.

t
Partition number (1-4):

We know that we are modifying partition number 4.

4
Hex code (type L to list codes):

Now we need to set the hex code for the partition type to set. We want to set fd, which defines Linux raid autodetect.

fd
Changed system type of partition 4 to fd (Linux raid autodetect)

Now check that everything went as expected by once again printing the partition table.

p
Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000c6fe1
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1        5100    40960000   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda2            5100        5622     4194304   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda3   *        5622        5654      256000   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda4            5654       60801   442972704+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
 
Command (m for help):

There it is. So finally, we need to write the changes to the disk.

w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
 
WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.

If you see the above message, do not reboot until both drives have been setup. You might as well reboot once only.

Repeat these steps for the second drive, /dev/sdb and then reboot if needed.

[edit] Creating The New /dev/mdX Device

If you only have one drive, skip this step.

Now we need to use mdadm to create the new RAID level 1 device. This will be used as the device that DRBD will directly access.

mdadm --create /dev/md3 --homehost=localhost.localdomain --raid-devices=2 --level=1 /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb4
mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and
    may not be suitable as a boot device.  If you plan to
    store '/boot' on this device please ensure that
    your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use
    --metadata=0.90

Seeing as /boot doesn't exist on this device, we can safely ignore this warning.

y
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md/md4 started.

You can now cat /proc/mdstat to verify that it indeed built. If you're interested, you could open a new terminal window and use watch cat /proc/mdstat and watch the array build.

cat /proc/mdstat
md3 : active raid1 sdb4[1] sda4[0]
      442971544 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]
      [>....................]  resync =  0.8% (3678976/442971544) finish=111.0min speed=65920K/sec
 
md2 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
      4193272 blocks super 1.1 [2/2] [UU]
 
md1 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1]
      40958908 blocks super 1.1 [2/2] [UU]
      bitmap: 1/1 pages [4KB], 65536KB chunk
 
md0 : active raid1 sda3[0] sdb3[1]
      255988 blocks super 1.0 [2/2] [UU]
 
unused devices: <none>

Finally, we need to make sure that the new array will start when the system boots. To do this, we'll again use mdadm, but with different options that will have it output data in a format suitable for the /etc/mdadm.conf file. We'll redirect this output to that config file, thus updating it.

mdadm --detail --scan | grep md3 >> /etc/mdadm.conf
cat /etc/mdadm.conf
# mdadm.conf written out by anaconda
MAILADDR root
AUTO +imsm +1.x -all
ARRAY /dev/md0 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=b58df6d0:d925e7bb:c156168d:47c01718
ARRAY /dev/md1 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=ac2cf39c:77cd0314:fedb8407:9b945bb5
ARRAY /dev/md2 level=raid1 num-devices=2 UUID=4e513936:4a966f4e:0dd8402e:6403d10d
ARRAY /dev/md3 metadata=1.2 name=localhost.localdomain:3 UUID=f0b6d0c1:490d47e7:91c7e63a:f8dacc21

You'll note that the last line, which we just added, is different from the previous lines. This isn't a concern, but you are welcome to re-write it to match the existing format if you wish.

Before you proceed, it is strongly advised that you reboot each node and then verify that the new array did in fact start with the system. You do not need to wait for the sync to finish before rebooting. It will pick up where you left off once rebooted.

[edit] Configuration Files

DRBD uses a global configuration file, /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf, and one or more resource files. The resource files need to be created in the /etc/drbd.d/ directory and must have the suffix .res. For this example, we will create a single resource called r0 which we will configure in /etc/drbd.d/r0.res.

[edit] /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf

The stock /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf is sane, so we won't bother altering it here.

Full details on all the drbd.conf configuration file directives and arguments can be found here. Note: That link doesn't show this new configuration format. Please see Novell's link.

[edit] /etc/drbd.d/r0.res

This is the important part. This defines the resource to use, and must reflect the IP addresses and storage devices that DRBD will use for this resource.

vim /etc/drbd.d/r0.res
# This is the name of the resource and it's settings. Generally, 'r0' is used
# as the name of the first resource. This is by convention only, though.
resource r0
{
        # This tells DRBD where to make the new resource available at on each
        # node. This is, again, by convention only.
        device    /dev/drbd0;
 
        # The main argument here tells DRBD that we will have proper locking 
        # and fencing, and as such, to allow both nodes to set the resource to
        # 'primary' simultaneously.
        net
        {
                allow-two-primaries;
        }
 
        # This tells DRBD to automatically set both nodes to 'primary' when the
        # nodes start.
        startup
        {
                become-primary-on both;
        }
 
        # This tells DRBD to look for and store it's meta-data on the resource
        # itself.
        meta-disk       internal;
 
        # The name below must match the output from `uname -n` on each node.
        on an-node01.alteeve.com
        {
                # This must be the IP address of the interface on the storage 
                # network (an-node01.sn, in this case).
                address         10.0.0.71:7789;
 
                # This is the underlying partition to use for this resource on 
                # this node.
                disk            /dev/md3;
        }
 
        # Repeat as above, but for the other node.
        on an-node02.alteeve.com
        {
                address         10.0.0.72:7789;
                disk            /dev/md3;
        }
}

This file must be copied to BOTH nodes and must match before you proceed.

[edit] Starting The DRBD Resource

From the rest of this section, pay attention to whether you see

  • Node1
  • Node2
  • Both

These indicate which node to run the following commands on. There is no functional difference between either node, so just randomly choose one to be Node1 and the other will be Node2. Once you've chosen which is which, be consistent with which node you run the commands on. Of course, if a command block is proceeded by Both, run the following code block on both nodes.

[edit] Initialize The Block Device

Node1

This step creates the DRBD meta-data on the new DRBD device. It is only needed when creating new DRBD partitions.

drbdadm create-md r0
Writing meta data...
initializing activity log
NOT initialized bitmap
New drbd meta data block successfully created.
success

[edit] Monitoring Progress

Both

I find it very useful to monitor DRBD while running the rest of the setup. To do this, open a second terminal on each node and use watch to keep an eye on /proc/drbd. This way you will be able to monitor the progress of the array in near-real time.

Both

watch cat /proc/drbd

At this stage, it should look like this:

version: 8.3.7 (api:88/proto:86-91)
GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 0: cs:Unconfigured

[edit] Starting the Resource

Both

This will attach the backing device, /dev/md3 in our case, and then start the new resource r0.

drbdadm up r0

There will be no output at the command line. If you are watching /proc/drbd though, you should now see something like this:

version: 8.3.7 (api:88/proto:86-91)
GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 0: cs:Connected ro:Secondary/Secondary ds:Inconsistent/Inconsistent C r----
    ns:0 nr:0 dw:0 dr:0 al:0 bm:0 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:442957988

That it is Secondary/Secondary and Inconsistent/Inconsistent is expected.

[edit] Setting the First Primary Node

Node1

As this is a totally new resource, DRBD doesn't know which side of the array is "more valid" than the other. In reality, neither is as there was no existing data of note on either node. This means that we now need to choose a node and tell DRBD to treat it as the "source" node. This step will also tell DRBD to make the "source" node primary. Once set, DRBD will begin sync'ing in the background.

drbdadm -- --overwrite-data-of-peer primary r0

As before, there will be no output at the command line, but /proc/drbd will change to show the following:

GIT-hash: ea9e28dbff98e331a62bcbcc63a6135808fe2917 build by root@xenmaster002.iplink.net, 2010-09-07 16:02:46
 0: cs:SyncSource ro:Primary/Secondary ds:UpToDate/Inconsistent C r----
    ns:69024 nr:0 dw:0 dr:69232 al:0 bm:4 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:442888964
        [>....................] sync'ed:  0.1% (432508/432576)M
        finish: 307:33:42 speed: 320 (320) K/sec

If you're watching the secondary node, the /proc/drbd will show ro:Secondary/Primary ds:Inconsistent/UpToDate. This is, as you can guess, simply a reflection of it being the "over-written" node.

[edit] Setting the Second Node to Primary

Node2

The last step to complete the array is to tell the second node to also become primary.

drbdadm primary r0

As with many drbdadm commands, nothing will be printed to the console. If you're watching the /proc/drbd though, you should see something like Primary/Primary ds:UpToDate/Inconsistent. The Inconsistent flag will remain until the sync is complete.

[edit] A Note On sync Speed

You will notice in the previous step that the sync speed seems awfully slow at 320 (320) K/sec.

This is not a problem!

As actual data is written to either side of the array, that data will be immediately copied to both nodes. As such, both nodes will always contain up to date copies of the real data. Given this, the syncer is intentionally set low so as to not put too much load on the underlying disks that could cause slow downs. If you still wish to increase the sync speed, you can do so with the following command.

drbdsetup /dev/drbd0 syncer -r 100M

The speed-up will not be instant. It will take a little while for the speed to pick up. Once the sync is finished, it is a good idea to revert to the default sync rate.

drbdadm syncer r0

[edit] Making DRBD Start At Boot

This is simply a matter of using chkconfig.

chkconfig drbd on
ls -lah /etc/rc3.d/ | grep drbd

This should output something like:

lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root   14 Sep  8 17:53 S70drbd -> ../init.d/drbd

[edit] Setting up CLVM

The goal of DRBD in the cluster is to provide clustered LVM, referred to as CLVM to the nodes. This is done by turning the DRBD partition into an CLVM physical volume.

So now we will create a PV on top of the new DRBD partition, /dev/drbd0, that we created in the previous step. Since this new LVM PV will exist on top of the shared DRBD partition, whatever get written to it's logical volumes will be immediately available on either node, regardless of which node actually initiated the write.

This capability is the underlying reason for creating this cluster; Neither machine is truly needed so if one machine dies, anything on top of the DRBD partition will still be available. When the failed machine returns, the surviving node will have a list of what blocks changed while the other node was gone and can use this list to quickly re-sync the other server.

[edit] Making LVM Cluster-Aware

Normally, LVM is run on a single server. This means that at any time, the LVM can write data to the underlying drive and not need to worry if any other device might change anything. In clusters, this isn't the case. The other node could try to write to the shared storage, so then nodes need to enable "locking" to prevent the two nodes from trying to work on the same bit of data at the same time.

The process of enabling this locking is known as making LVM "cluster-aware".

LVM has tool called lvmconf that can be used to enable LVM locking. This is provided as part of the lvm2-cluster package.

yum install lvm2-cluster.x86_64

Now to enable cluster awareness in LVM, run to following command.

lvmconf --enable-cluster

[edit] Enabling Cluster Locking

By default, clvmd, the cluster lvm daemon, is stopped and not set to run on boot. Now that we've enabled LVM locking, we need to start it:

/etc/init.d/clvmd status
clvmd is stopped
active volumes: lv_drbd lv_root lv_swap

As expected, it is stopped, so lets start it:

/etc/init.d/clvmd start
Stopping clvm:                                             [  OK  ]
Starting clvmd:                                            [  OK  ]
Activating VGs:   3 logical volume(s) in volume group "an-lvm01" now active
                                                           [  OK  ]

[edit] Creating a new PV using the DRBD Partition

We can now proceed with setting up the new DRBD-based LVM physical volume. Once the PV is created, we can create a new volume group and start allocating space to logical volumes.

Note: As we will be using our DRBD device, and as it is a shared block device, most of the following commands only need to be run on one node. Once the block device changes in any way, those changes will near-instantly appear on the other node. For this reason, unless explicitly stated to do so, only run the following commands on one node.

To setup the DRBD partition as an LVM PV, run pvcreate:

pvcreate /dev/drbd0
  Physical volume "/dev/drbd0" successfully created

Now, on both nodes, check that the new physical volume is visible by using pvdisplay:

pvdisplay
  --- Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/md1
  VG Name               vg_01
  PV Size               465.52 GiB / not usable 15.87 MiB
  Allocatable           yes 
  PE Size               32.00 MiB
  Total PE              14896
  Free PE               782
  Allocated PE          14114
  PV UUID               BuR5uh-R74O-kACb-S1YK-MHxd-9O69-yo1EKW
 
  "/dev/drbd0" is a new physical volume of "399.99 GiB"
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/drbd0
  VG Name               
  PV Size               399.99 GiB
  Allocatable           NO
  PE Size               0   
  Total PE              0
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          0
  PV UUID               LYOE1B-22fk-LfOn-pu9v-9lhG-g8vx-cjBnsY

If you see PV Name /dev/drbd0 on both nodes, then your DRBD setup and LVM configuration changes are working perfectly!

[edit] Creating a VG on the new PV

Now we need to create the volume group using the vgcreate command:

vgcreate -c y drbd_vg0 /dev/drbd0
  Clustered volume group "drbd_vg0" successfully created

Now we'll check that the new VG is visible on both nodes using vgdisplay:

vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               vg_01
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  6
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                3
  Open LV               3
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               465.50 GiB
  PE Size               32.00 MiB
  Total PE              14896
  Alloc PE / Size       14114 / 441.06 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       782 / 24.44 GiB
  VG UUID               YbHSKn-x64P-oEbe-8R0S-3PjZ-UNiR-gdEh6T
 
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               drbd_vg0
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  1
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  Clustered             yes
  Shared                no
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                0
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               399.98 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              102396
  Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0   
  Free  PE / Size       102396 / 399.98 GiB
  VG UUID               NK00Or-t9Z7-9YHz-sDC8-VvBT-NPeg-glfLwy

If the new VG is visible on both nodes, we are ready to create our first logical volume using the lvcreate tool.

[edit] Creating the First Two LVs on the new VG

Now we'll create a simple 20 GiB logical volumes. We will use it as a shared GFS store for source ISOs (and Xen domU config files) later on.

lvcreate -L 20G -n iso_store drbd_vg0
  Logical volume "iso_store" created

As before, we will check that the new logical volume is visible from both nodes by using the lvdisplay command:

lvdisplay
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Name                /dev/vg_01/lv_root
  VG Name                vg_01
  LV UUID                dl6jxD-asN7-bGYL-H4yO-op6q-Nt6y-RxkPnt
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                39.06 GiB
  Current LE             1250
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:0
 
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Name                /dev/vg_01/lv_swap
  VG Name                vg_01
  LV UUID                VL3G06-Ob0o-sEB9-qNX3-rIAJ-nzW5-Auf64W
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                2.00 GiB
  Current LE             64
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:1
 
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Name                /dev/vg_01/lv_drbd
  VG Name                vg_01
  LV UUID                SRT3N5-kA84-I3Be-LI20-253s-qTGT-fuFPfr
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Status              available
  # open                 2
  LV Size                400.00 GiB
  Current LE             12800
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:2
 
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Name                /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store
  VG Name                drbd_vg0
  LV UUID                H0M5fL-Wxb6-o8cb-Wb30-Rla3-fwzp-tzdR62
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Status              available
  # open                 0
  LV Size                20.00 GiB
  Current LE             5120
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:3

The last two are the new logical volumes.

[edit] Create the Shared GFS FileSystem

GFS is a cluster-aware file system that can be simultaneously mounted on two or more nodes at once. We will use it as a place to store ISOs that we'll use to provision our virtual machines.

Start by installing the GFS2 tools:

yum install gfs2-utils.x86_64

As before, modify the gfs2 init script to start after clvmd, and then modify xendomains to start after gfs2. Finally, use chkconfig to reconfigure the boot order:

chkconfig xend off; chkconfig cman off; chkconfig drbd off; chkconfig clvmd off; chkconfig xendomains off; chkconfig gfs2 off
chkconfig xend on; chkconfig cman on; chkconfig drbd on; chkconfig clvmd on; chkconfig xendomains on; chkconfig gfs2 on

The following example is designed for the cluster used in this paper.

  • If you have more than 2 nodes, increase the -j 2 to the number of nodes you want to mount this file system on.
  • If your cluster is named something other than an-cluster (as set in the cluster.conf file), change -t an-cluster:iso_store to match you cluster's name. The iso_store can be whatever you like, but it must be unique in the cluster. I tend to use a name that matches the LV name, but this is my own preference and is not required.

To format the partition run:

mkfs.gfs2 -p lock_dlm -j 2 -t xencluster001:iso_store /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store

If you are prompted, press y to proceed.

Once the format completes, you can mount /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store as you would a normal file system.

Both:

To complete the example, lets mount the GFS2 partition we made just now on /shared.

mkdir /shared
mount /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store /shared

Done!

[edit] Growing a GFS2 Partition

To grow a GFS2 partition, you must know where it is mounted. You can not grow an unmounted GFS2 partition, as odd as that may seem at first. Also, you only need to run grow commands from one node. Once completed, all nodes will see and use the new free space automatically.

This requires two steps to complete:

  1. Extend the underlying LVM logical volume
  2. Grow the actual GFS2 partition

[edit] Extend the LVM LV

To keep things simple, we'll just use some of the free space we left on our /dev/drbd0 LVM physical volume. If you need to add more storage to your LVM first, please follow the instructions in the article: "Adding Space to an LVM" before proceeding.

Let's add 50GB to our GFS2 logical volume /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store from the /dev/drbd0 physical volume, which we know is available because we left more than that back when we first setup our LVM. To actually add the space, we need to use the lvextend command:

lvextend -L +50G /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store /dev/drbd0

Which should return:

  Extending logical volume iso_store to 70.00 GB
  Logical volume iso_store successfully resized

If we run lvdisplay /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store now, we should see the extra space.

  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Name                /dev/drbd_vg0/iso_store
  VG Name                drbd_vg0
  LV UUID                svJx35-KDXK-ojD2-UDAA-Ah9t-UgUl-ijekhf
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                70.00 GB
  Current LE             17920
  Segments               2
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:3

You're now ready to proceed.

[edit] Grow The GFS2 Partition

This step is pretty simple, but you need to enter the commands exactly. Also, you'll want to do a dry-run first and address any resulting errors before issuing the final gfs2_grow command.

To get the exact name to use when calling gfs2_grow, run the following command:

gfs2_tool df
/shared:
  SB lock proto = "lock_dlm"
  SB lock table = "an-cluster:iso_store"
  SB ondisk format = 1801
  SB multihost format = 1900
  Block size = 4096
  Journals = 2
  Resource Groups = 80
  Mounted lock proto = "lock_dlm"
  Mounted lock table = "an-cluster:iso_store"
  Mounted host data = "jid=1:id=196610:first=0"
  Journal number = 1
  Lock module flags = 0
  Local flocks = FALSE
  Local caching = FALSE
 
  Type           Total Blocks   Used Blocks    Free Blocks    use%           
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  data           5242304        1773818        3468486        34%
  inodes         3468580        94             3468486        0%

From this output, we know that GFS2 expects the name "/shared". Even adding something as simple as a trailing slash will not work. The program we will use is called gfs2_grow with the -T switch to run the command as a test to work out possible errors.

For example, if you added the trailing slash, this is the kind of error you would see:

Bad command:

gfs_grow -T /shared/
GFS Filesystem /shared/ not found

Once we get it right, it will look like this:

gfs_grow -T /shared
(Test mode--File system will not be changed)
FS: Mount Point: /shared
FS: Device:      /dev/mapper/drbd_vg0-iso_store
FS: Size:        5242878 (0x4ffffe)
FS: RG size:     65535 (0xffff)
DEV: Size:       18350080 (0x1180000)
The file system grew by 51200MB.
gfs2_grow complete.

This looks good! We're now ready to re-run the command without the -T switch:

gfs_grow /shared
FS: Mount Point: /shared
FS: Device:      /dev/mapper/drbd_vg0-iso_store
FS: Size:        5242878 (0x4ffffe)
FS: RG size:     65535 (0xffff)
DEV: Size:       18350080 (0x1180000)
The file system grew by 51200MB.
gfs2_grow complete.

You can check that the new space is available on both nodes now using a simple call like df -h.

[edit] Altering Start/Stop Orders

Given DRBD's role in the cluster, we need to make sure that cman starts, then drbd and finally clvmd. The shut down order needs to be in reverse.

This is because cman provides DLM and fencing. The drbd daemon relies on this fencing and clvmd requires the distributed locking. Further, drbd needs to start before clvmd so that when clvmd goes looking for it's PV, it can find it.

To make sure the start order is sane then, we'll edit each of the three daemon's init scripts and alter their Required-Start and Required-Stop lines, then make the changes take effect by using chkconfig to remove and re-add them to the start levels.

[edit] Altering cman

We will tell cman to stop after drbd only.

vim /etc/init.d/cman
#!/bin/bash
#
# cman - Cluster Manager init script
#
# chkconfig: - 21 79
# description: Starts and stops cman
#
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:             cman
# Required-Start:       $network $time
# Required-Stop:        $network $time drbd
# Default-Start:
# Default-Stop:
# Short-Description:    Starts and stops cman
# Description:          Starts and stops the Cluster Manager set of daemons
### END INIT INFO

[edit] Altering drbd

Now we will tell drbd to start after cman and to not stop until clvmd has stopped.

This requires the additional step of altering the chkconfig: - 70 08 line to instead read chkconfig: - 20 08. This isn't strictly needed, but will give more room for chkconfig to order the dependent daemons by allowing DRBD to be started as low as position 20, rather than waiting until position 70. This is somewhat more compatible with cman and clvmd which normally start at positions 21 and 24, respectively

vim /etc/init.d/drbd
#!/bin/bash
#
# chkconfig: - 20 08
# description: Loads and unloads the drbd module
#
# Copright 2001-2008 LINBIT Information Technologies
# Philipp Reisner, Lars Ellenberg
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: drbd
# Required-Start: $local_fs $network $syslog cman
# Required-Stop:  $local_fs $network $syslog clvmd
# Should-Start:   sshd multipathd
# Should-Stop:    sshd multipathd
# Default-Start:
# Default-Stop:
# Short-Description:    Control drbd resources.
### END INIT INFO

[edit] Altering clvmd

Lastly, we will now tell clvmd to start after drbd.

vim /etc/init.d/clvmd
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: clvmd
# Required-Start: $local_fs drbd
# Required-Stop: $local_fs
# Default-Start:
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: Clustered LVM Daemon
### END INIT INFO

[edit] Applying The Changes

Change the start order by removing and re-adding all cluster-related daemons using chkconfig.

chkconfig drbd off; chkconfig cman off; chkconfig clvmd off; chkconfig drbd on; chkconfig cman on; chkconfig clvmd on


 

Any questions, feedback, advice, complaints or meanderings are welcome.
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